Salinity intrusion is one of the major environmental issues throughout the world. Contamination of freshwater by salt from marine water or any other process is called saline water and has an extreme frequency of salt are found in water. In general thinking water with soil found in soil but it is true that a noticeable quantity of saline saturated water noticed at the ground surface and this is taken place by replacing freshwater. But, accumulation of excessive salt in the soil which provides a wilting point for plant and organism is generally termed as saline soil.
In Bangladesh, approximately 75% of the land is floodplain with very short of the mean altitude above sea level. The converse influence of saline water intruded into the soil and finally turned as saline soil has much significant as Bangladesh, a disaster-prone country in the world.
This green-red country is drawn as a seaside country in the Bay of Bengal and in this case coastal region belongs a large quantity here. The coastal belt consists of Khulna, Patuakhali, Barguna, Satkhira, Bagerhat, and Barishal district in the thumbnail in volume- this overpopulated country. Bangladesh is a growing and developing country. This development is dependent on an agricultural production system which in turn brings economic visibility throughout the world. Salinity intrusion constrain both agricultural and economic development. Salinity causes a hostile environment for normal crop production.
Satkhira is one of the populated coastal districts including others. It is a sub-division of Khulna and develops into distinctive Upazila ( i.e. Assasuni, Debhata, Kalaroa, Kaligonj, Sathkhira Sadar, Shaymnagar as well as Tala ). The agricultural sector plays a crucial role in Bangladesh’s economy whereas rice and other yield have grown well. Land of coastal area in the coastal area of Satkhira including different Upazila Shymnagor and Kaligonj Upazila might be fertile and productive due to siltation and geographic location. For the acquired favorable climatic and geographic localization, the yield of different crops grown as well, which was filled up local demands including another’s demand in diverse places of Bangladesh. In the recent past in 2009, the deluge of Cyclone Aila diminish capabilities of productivity and fertility of coastal topsoil including subsoil, which provides a medium for plant/ crops and these properties damage due to tolerable salinity intrusion into the soil. Those hazardous cyclones covered with all-region by marine water and percolating of salinity deposit as layer basis on soil profile as well as groundwater, surface water. According to soil scientist and water, experts revealed his/her concern that such a higher salt level beyond to lamentable range of paddy in soil due to majority paddy can survive and thrive on approximately below 4 dS/m whereas salinity of soil range 8-15 mS/m. In view of the plant not willing to uptake water for its high concentration and effect on shortened of any cultivating operation practice and maturity of the plant facing on fetter. In affecting area salinity intrusion is a curse for people. Furthermore On the basis of our climate and geographical location, three categories of rice grown up from previous i.e. Aus. Aman, Boro. From modern civilization Earths temperature incredibly increases as well as global warming play a crucial role in acting on different natural hazards. For this result, salty intrusion gradually increased up and decrease in the capability of types of rice. Only definite Amon can only subsist on this repulse condition. But Aus and Boro’s rice also faces a setback. None of these varieties can tolerate such high-level salinity. Consequently, salinity impact not only cultivation but also affects people’s lives.
Principal Factors of intrusion Saline Water: Several factors influence on climate change as well as rising sea level is the main reason of salinity intrusion. There is two way of possesses this exterminatory problem arises and that is either natural process and/or human activities.
Other various factors cause less intensity of cropping in the affecting area due to dry season of salinity, certain unfavorable soil and land characteristics like riverbank erosion, flood late draining condition, heavy clay basin, poor quality of draught animal, scarcity of irrigation water, acidity, low fertility status exposure to cyclone storm surge risk of early and late rainfall, difficult communication and remoteness of the urban market, etc.
How saline water dominating Socio-Economic conditions:
Description of some socio- Economic Conditions in survey place are given below-
Economical study of Bangladesh reveals that about 70% of Bangladeshis related to agricultural sectors in our country. But the intolerable intensity of salt could not reach on residence yet but our land of agriculture is fully affected. In some cases, people use their land for shrimp cultivation in contrast to agriculture. As a result production of rice, vegetables decreases and some of the people who adjoining in the farming sector lost his working place.
At ones, fishery sectors in our country would enrich and also criticism also all over the world. Climate change and sea level rising likely affect the fisheries in Bangladesh. Due to global warming, increasing the earth’s temperature and salinity intrusion problem may not suitable for many species.Sea level rise, by reducing the freshwater area, will cause a reduction in white fishes culture. Indefinite area, pond culture also affected by saltwater intrusion. Whenever saline water intrudes in the locality as well in excessive quantity, farming of white fishes i.e. Catfish, Carp, Eel, etc. undergo downward production. Therein white gold (Shrimp) found favorable water for its existence.
Great environmental losses due to saline intrusion into soil and water in Shymnagar Upazilla under Satkhira district.Depletion of underground drinking water, freshwater fish, food grain, forager, milk and dairy goods that abandoned a lot of people in the study area. In a questionnaire survey, we found a common issue, that is food, and food material crisis arises so many problems to survive in localities that were not found this issue in the previous decade.
The health issue has one of the major problems in the coastal area. As far as they cannot but drink saline water because extreme salinity intrudes upon tube well. Highly contamination of saline can cause a variety of diseases ranging from skin disease, water-borne diseases, even cancer and peripheral nervous system to reproductive disorders and disruption of the immune system that can have a transgenerational effect, affecting both parent and offspring.
- Saline Soils of Bangladesh, www.srdi.portal.gov.bd
- Journal of food quality, www.hindawi.com/journals/jfq
- Saline Water, https://aqua4d-irrigation.com/solutions/saline-water/
Md. Sabbir Hossain
Dept. Of Soil and Environmental Sciences
The University of Barishal