Bangladesh is a densely populated country with minimum cultivable land. Moreover, agriculture faces so many threats. Such as land degradation, soil erosion, organic matter depletion, acidification, natural hazards, etc. Production is hampered by these constraints. (Mizanur, 2018). The decline in Soil organic matter is actually an apocalypse for the population of the earth. The organic matter content is decreasing day by day. We can ameliorate the situation by considering several measures.
The measures to improve the status of organic matter in Bangladesh soils are given here –
1. Using farm fertilizer We can increase the status of organic matter in Bangladesh soil by using farm fertilizer. The farm fertilizer can be prepared by mixing animal excreta with straw that is used for different farms.
2. Green manure application; To remove the deficiency of organic matter content from agricultural plots, we can use green manure as organic fertilizer. We can cultivate different green manure crops such as alfalfa, cowpea, clover, fava beans, lupin, etc in our agricultural lands. The green manure of cover crops will be left in the field to decompose. That is an effective way to recover the organic matter content in Bangladesh soils.
3 Application of cow dung fertilizer: In Bangladesh, we can prepare cow dung fertilizer easily. Cow dung is also known as cow manure. That is a grade fertilizer for crop production. But, the cow manure needs to be composted before using it as fertilizer for agriculture purposes.
4. Conservation tillage: It is a great measure that must be helpful for maintaining organic matter content in Bangladesh soil. This practice ranges from zero tillage (no-till), reduced tillage (minimum), mulch tillage to contour tillage. It is a method of the conservation of soil that leaves the previous year’s Crop residue on the field before and after planting the next crop. Frequent tillage destroys SOM fractions and urges the transfer of SOM to deep soil layers. The elimination of tillage favored the accumulation of SOM (Jing, Xiaohong, Chaofu, & Deti, 2007). Based on the analysis of available literature, it can be concluded that conservation tillage system increases organic matter content in soil (Sapkota, 2016).
5. Leaving the plant residue in the field: Leaving the plant residue in the agricultural fields is an outstanding practice to improve the organic matter content in Bangladesh soils. The plant residue can be mixed with the soil by applying tillage.
6 Application of lime: The activities of soil microbes can be accelerated because of the addition of lime into the soil. “The rapid reduction of fresh organic matter can be occurred because of increasing the number of microorganisms. Besides, after the death of the microbes, they can act as the organic matter content in the soil.
7. Application of compost fertilizer: The composting process involves four main components organic matter, moisture, oxygen, and bacteria. Organic matter that can be used for compost should include a mixture of brown material (organic) such as dead leaves twigs, manure and green organic material Lawn clippings fruit rands, etc.
8. Controlled grazing: We can control the grazing pattern of the cattle. Rotational greasing can be considered a controlled grazing method. Thus, we can improve the organic matter content in soils.
9 Low temperature and high moisture: The organic matter in soils can be managed by controlling the temperature and moisture of the soils. Low temperature and high moisture are favorable for organic matter content in soils.
10. Surface mulches: It can be considered to retain the moisture content in the soil. Mulch is a layer of materials applied to the surface of the soil. The method is pretty much helpful to improve the organic matter content in the soil of Bangladesh.
11. Use of organic fertilizer: Organic fertilizers applied in large amounts can improve the level of the organic matter instantly. We can use green manure and farmyard manure as the sources of organic matter.
Thus, we can improve the organic matter content in Bangladesh soils. We must adopt sustainable land management as well as reduce greenhouse gases(GHS) to mitigate climate change. Climate change is a global concern nowadays. By considering all of these aspects, organic fertilizer is the one & only solution. Organic fertilizer can improve soil physical, chemical, and biological properties. Organic fertilizer contributes to sustainable land management by improving these properties. Organic fertilizer also reduces greenhouse gases(GHG) to mitigate climate change greatly. So organic fertilizer application is very much needed to feed our population with sustainable land management as well as mitigate climate change and increase food security.
1. Organic Fertilizer as a Strategy of Sustainable Land Management and Climate Change Mitigation SUBMITTED TO : Course Instructors Major Professor Dr . Md . Mizanur Rahman Department of Soil Science. (2018).
2. Jing, S., Xiaohong, T., Chaofu, W., & Deti, X. (2007). Effects of conservation tillage on soil organic matter in paddy rice cultivation, 27(11).
3. Sapkota, T. B. (2016). Conservation Tillage Impact on Soil Aggregation , Organic Matter Turnover and Conservation Tillage Impact on Soil Aggregation , Organic Matter Turnover and Biodiversity, (April 2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-4113-3